Publications

1. A. N. Kurtz, W. E. Billups, R. B. Greenlee, H. F. Hamil, W. T. Pace, The configuration of chloroacrylic acids, amides, esters, and nitriles by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J. Org. Chem. 196530, 3141.

2. M. L. Farmer, W. E. Billups, R. B. Greenlee, A. N. Kurtz, Isomerization of propargylic amines to conjugated dienes. 2-dialkylamino-1,3-butadienes. J. Org. Chem. 196631, 2885.

3. J. H. Wotiz, W. E. Billups, D. T. Christian, The sodium amide catalyzed rearrangement of some acetylenes in ethylenediamine1a. J. Org. Chem. 1966, 31, 2069.

4. T. C. Shields, W. E. Billups, 2-Chloro-3,3-dimethylmethylenecyclopropane. Chem. Ind. (London) 1967, 1999.

5. T. C. Shields, W. E. Billups, A. N. Kurtz, A new alkenynylamine synthesis. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 19687, 209.

6. W. E. Billups, A. N. Kurtz, Diastereomeric equilibration of the dichloropentanes. A model system for poly(vinyl chloride). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 196890, 1361.

7. T. C. Shields, W. E. Billups, A. R. Lepley, Methylenevinylcyclopropane. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 196890, 4749.

8. T. C. Shields, W. E. Billups, Vinylethylidenecyclopropane and trans-1,2-divinylcyclopropane via elimination-isomerization. Chem. Ind. (London) 1969, 619.

9. N. C. Deno, W. E. Billups, J. S. Bingman, R. R. Lastomirsky, R. G. Whalen, Carbonium ions. XXII. Formation of transient, primary carbonium ions by oxidation of carboxylic acids. J. Org. Chem. 196934, 3207.

10. N. C. Deno, W. E. Billups, R. E. DiStefano, K. M. McDonald, S. Schneider, Alkylation of acetic anhydride by triphenylmethyl cation. J. Org. Chem. 197035, 278.

11. N. C. Deno, W. E. Billups, K. E. Kramer, R. R. Lastomirsky, Rearrangement of aliphatic primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl hydroperoxides in strong acid. J. Org. Chem. 197035, 3080.

12. N. C. Deno, W. E. Billups, D. LaVietes, P. C. Scholl, S. Schneider, Protonated cyclopropane intermediates in the reactions of cyclopropanecarboxylic acids. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 197092, 3700.

13. W. E. Billups, N. C. Deno, meso-(+)-and erythro-threo-Dichloroalkane equilibriums. Journal of the Chemical Society D: Chemical Communications 1970, 12.

14. W. E. Billups, N. C. Deno, Protonated cyclopropane intermediates in the addition of chlorine to methyl- and ethylcyclopropane. Journal of the Chemical Society D: Chemical Communications 1970, 1387.

15. W. E. Billups, A. N. Kurtz, M. L. Farmer, Halogen migration in the reaction of dichloroalkanes with aluminum chloride. Tetrahedron 197026, 1095.

16. E. S. Lewis, M. M. Butler, W. E. Billups, Sensual demonstration of gas chromatography. J. Chem. Educ. 197148, 361.

17. N. C. Deno, W. E. Billups, R. Fishbein, C. Pierson, R. Whalen, J. C. Wyckoff, Cation radicals. II. Selectivity (greater than 90%) for omega.-1 monochlorination of C6 and C8 alcohols, ethers, and carboxylic acids using nitrogen cation radicals. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 197193, 438.

18. W. E. Billups, A. J. Blakeney, W. Y. Chow, Benzocyclopropene synthesis. Journal of the Chemical Society D: Chemical Communications 1971, 1461.

19. W. E. Billups, W. E. Walker, T. C. Shields, Palladium-catalyzed carbonylation-dimerization of butadiene. Journal of the Chemical Society D: Chemical Communications 1971, 1067.

20. W. E. Billups, L.-P. Lin, O. A. Gansow, Dimethylene(2-propenylidene) methanetricarbonyliron. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 197211, 637.

21. W. E. Billups, T. C. Shields, W. Y. Chow, N. C. Deno, Vinylalkylidenecyclopropanes from gem-dichlorocyclopropanes by hydrogen chloride eliminations. J. Org. Chem. 197237, 3676.

22. W. E. Billups, K. H. Leavell, W. Y. Chow, E. S. Lewis, Synthesis and pyrolytic transformations of 7-methylenebicyclo[4.1.0]hept-2-ene and bicyclo[6.1.0]nona-1,6-diene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 197294, 1770.

23. W. E. Billups, L. P. Lin, B. A. Baker, Trimethylenemethane vs. diene coordination in the reaction of 2,2-dimethyl-allylidenecyclopropane with Fe2(CO)9. J. Organomet. Chem. 197361, C55.

24. W. E. Billups, W. Y. Chow, Naphtho[b]cyclopropene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 197395, 4099.

25. W. E. Billups, W. Y. Chow, K. H. Leavell, E. S. Lewis, J. L. Margrave, R. L. Sass, J. J. Shieh, P. G. Werness, J. L. Wood, Structure and thermochemistry of benzocyclopropenes. Bond fixation and strain energy. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 197395, 7878.

26. W. E. Billups, J. H. Cross, C. V. Smith, Synthesis of (+-)-grandisol. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 197395, 3438.

27. W. E. Billups, K. H. Leavell, E. S. Lewis, S. Vanderpool, Rates and mechanisms in the rearrangements of vinylmethylenecyclopropane and vinylethylidenecyclopropane. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 197395, 8096.

28. W. E. Billups, W. Y. Chow, K. H. Leavell, E. S. Lewis, Synthesis and thermolysis of 1-allylidene-2-vinylcyclopropane and 1-(1-buta-1,3-dienyl)-2-methylenecyclopropane. J. Org. Chem. 197439, 274.

29. W. E. Billups, W. Y. Chow, C. V. Smith, Uses of benzocyclopropenes in synthesis. Catalysis by silver ion. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 197496, 1979.

30. W. E. Billups, L. P. Lin, W. Y. Chow, Evidence for the discrete existence of a bicyclo[4.1.0]heptatriene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 197496, 4026.

31. C. V. Smith, W. E. Billups, Chlorination of norbornane, bicyclo[2.2.2]octane, and adamantane using nitrogen cation radicals. Bridgehead chlorination. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 197496, 4307.

32. W. E. Billups, W. Y. Chow, J. H. Cross, Synthesis of (+-)-dictyopterene A and (+-)-dictyopterene C’. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1974, 252.

33. W. E. Billups, B. A. Baker, W. Y. Chow, K. H. Leavell, E. S. Lewis, Effect of ring size on the thermal rearrangements of bicyclo[n.1.0]alka-1,n-dienes. J. Org. Chem. 197540, 1702.

34. W. E. Billups, J. H. Cross, A. J. Blakeney, Isolation of a cyclopropene from dehydrochlorination of a gem-dichlorocyclopropane. J. Org. Chem. 1975, 40, 1848.

35. F. A. Cotton, J. M. Troup, W. E. Billups, L. P. Lin, C. V. Smith, Synthesis and structure proof of a new ring system from the reaction of diironnonacarbonyl and naphtho[b]cyclopropene. J. Organomet. Chem. 1975102, 345.

36. W. E. Billups, A. J. Blakeney, W. T. Chamberlain, The generation and trapping of methylenecyclopropene. J. Org. Chem. 197641, 3771.

37. W. E. Billups, A. J. Blakeney, Synthesis of methylenecyclopropenes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 197698, 7817.

38. W. E. Billups, W. T. Chamberlain, M. Y. Asim, Synthesis of 3-chloro- and 3-bromobenzocyclopropene. Tetrahedron Lett. 197718, 571.

39. W. E. Billups, L. E. Reed, Generation of bicyclo[4.1.0]heptatrienes. Carbene-carbene rearrangements in solution. Tetrahedron Lett. 197718, 2239.

40. W. E. Billups, Synthesis and chemistry of benzocyclopropenes. Acc. Chem. Res. 197811, 245.

41. W. E. Billups, J. D. Buynak, D. Wolf, Generation of a 1,3-dehydronaphthalene. Evidence for the diyl structure. J. Org. Chem. 197944, 4218.

42. W. E. Billups, J. D. Buynak, D. Butler, Generation of 2-chloronaphthalene-1,3-diyl. J. Org. Chem. 198045, 4636.

43. W. E. Billups, M. M. Konarski, R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave, Activation of dimethyl ether with barium and strontium atoms. J. Organomet. Chem. 1980194, C22.

44. W. E. Billups, M. M. Konarski, R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave, Activation of methane with photoexcited metal atoms. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1980102, 7393.

45. W. E. Billups, M. M. Konarski, R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave, Carbon-carbon bond formation in the reaction of calcium atoms with ethers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1980102, 3649.

46. W. E. Billups, R. S. Erkes, L. E. Reed, Palladium catalyzed allylation of indole. Synth. Commun. 198010, 147.

47. W. E. Billups, M. M. Konarski, R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave, Activation of dimethyl ether with transition metal atoms. Tetrahedron Lett. 198021, 3861.

48. W. E. Billups, L. E. Reed, E. W. Casserly, L. P. Lin, Generation of bicyclo[4.1.0]heptatrienes. J. Org. Chem. 198146, 1326.

49. R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave, J. W. Kauffman, N. A. Rao, M. M. Konarski, J. P. Bell, W. E. Billups, Matrix isolation studies on the lithium-induced reductive coupling of carbon dioxide. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1981, 1258.

50. W. E. Billups, A. J. Blakeney, N. A. Rao, J. D. Buynak, Generation of simple methylenecyclopropenes as reactive intermediates. Tetrahedron 198137, 3215.

51. W. E. Billups, Book Reviews. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1983105, 5521.

52. Z. H. Kafafi, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave, Carbon dioxide activation by lithium metal. 1. Infrared spectra of lithium carbon dioxide (Li+CO2-), lithium oxalate (Li+C2O4-), and lithium carbon dioxide (Li22+CO22-) in inert-gas matrices. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1983105, 3886.

53. Z. H. Kafafi, R. H. Hauge, L. Fredin, W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave, Activation of ethane, propane, and cyclopropane by photoexcited iron atoms. J.Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1983, 1230.

54. W. E. Billups, L.-J. Lin, 1,4-di-tert-butylmethylenecyclopropene. Tetrahedron Lett. 198324, 1683.

55. Z. H. Kafafi, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave, Carbon dioxide activation by alkali metals. 2. Infrared spectra of M+CO2- and M22+CO22- in argon and nitrogen matrixes. Inorg. Chem. 198423, 177.

56. W. E. Billups, J. P. Bell, J. L. Margrave, R. H. Hauge, Activation of hexafluoroethane by calcium atoms. J. Fluorine Chem. 198426, 165.

57. W. E. Billups, B. E. Arney, L. J. Lin, Synthesis of tris-annelated benzenes incorporating a three-membered ring. J. Org. Chem. 198449, 3436.

58. W. E. Billups, E. W. Casserly, B. E. Arney, 1H-Cycloprop[b]anthracene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1984106, 440.

59. W. E. Billups, L. J. Lin, E. W. Casserly, Synthesis of methylenecyclopropene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1984106, 3698.

60. W. E. Billups, L.-J. Lin, B. E. Arney, W. A. Rodin, E. W. Casserly, 1-bromo-2-chlorocyclopropene–A new cycloproparene synthon. Synthesis of 1H-Cyclopropa[b]phenanthrene. Tetrahedron Lett. 198425, 3935.

61. S. C. Chang, Z. H. Kafafi, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave, Isolation and characterization of iron methylene (FeCH2) via FTIR matrix isolation. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1985107, 1447.

62. S. C. Chang, Z. H. Kafafi, R. H. Hauge, K. H. Whitmire, W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave, Infrared spectrum of hexacarbonylbis(µ-carbonyl)(µ-methylene)diiron, Fe2(CO)6(µ-CO)2(µ-CH2), in cryogenic matrixes. Inorg. Chem. 198625, 4530.

63. W. E. Billups, J. P. Bell, R. H. Hauge, E. S. Kline, A. W. Moorehead, J. L. Margrave, F. B. McCormick, Photoactivation of methyl acetate by chromium atoms. Organometallics 19865, 1917.

64. W. E. Billups, L.-J. Lin, Uses of adsorbed reagents in the synthesis of reactive molecules via elimination reactions. Tetrahedron 198642, 1575.

65. S. C. Chang, Z. H. Kafafi, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave, Isolation and characterization of copper methylene (CuCH2) via FTIR matrix isolation spectroscopy. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987109, 4508.

66. Z. H. Kafafi, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave, Infrared spectroscopy and photochemistry of iron-ethylene oxide in cryogenic matrixes. The FTIR spectrum of vinyliron hydroxide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987109, 4775.

67. S. C. Chang, R. H. Hauge, Z. H. Kafafi, J. L. Margrave, W. E. Billups, Isolation and characterization of zinc carbene by Fourier transform IR matrix isolation spectroscopy and its photolytic rearrangement to hydrozinc carbyne (HZnCH). J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1987, 1682.

68. C. Sou-Chan, Z. H. Kafafi, R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave, W. E. Billups, The isolation and characterization of copper methylene via matrix isolation spectroscopy. Tetrahedron Lett. 198728, 1733.

69. S. C. Chang, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave, Z. H. Kafafi, Low-temperature reactions of methane with photoexcited nickel atoms. Inorg. Chem. 198827, 205.

70. W. E. Billups, W. A. Rodin, Regioselective ring opening in annelated benzocyclopropenes. J. Org. Chem. 198853, 1312.

71. S. C. Chang, R. H. Hauge, Z. H. Kafafi, J. L. Margrave, W. E. Billups, Characterization and novel low-temperature reactions of FeCH2 and N2FeCH2. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988110, 7975.

72. W. E. Billups, A. W. Moorehead, P. J. Ko, J. L. Margrave, J. P. Bell, F. B. McCormick, Metal vapor synthesis of bis(arene)manganese cations utilizing in situ oxidation. Organometallics 19887, 2230.

73. W. E. Billups, W. A. Rodin, M. M. Haley, Cycloproparenes. Tetrahedron 198844, 1305.

74. W. E. Billups, M. M. Haley, Bicycloprop-2-enyl (C6H6). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 198928, 1711.

75. W. E. Billups, M. M. Haley, G. A. Lee, Bicyclo[n.1.0]alkenes. Chem. Rev. 198989, 1147.

76. S. C. Chang, R. H. Hauge, Z. H. Kafafi, J. L. Margrave, W. E. Billups, Low-temperature reactions of atomic nickel with diazomethane. Inorg. Chem. 199029, 4373.

77. R. E. Haufler, J. Conceicao, L. P. F. Chibante, Y. Chai, N. E. Byrne, S. Flanagan, M. M. Haley, S. C. O’Brien, C. Pan, et al., Efficient production of C60 (buckminsterfullerene), C60H36, and the solvated buckide ion. J. Phys. Chem. 199094, 8634.

78. W. E. Billups, M. M. Haley, Spiropentadiene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1991113, 5084.

79. W. E. Billups, M. M. Haley, R. C. Claussen, W. A. Rodin, Dicycloproparenes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1991113, 4331.

80. W. E. Billups, G. A. Lee, B. E. Arney, K. H. Whitmire, 1,3-Bridged cyclopropenes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1991113, 7980.

81. W. V. Steele, R. D. Chirico, N. K. Smith, W. E. Billups, P. R. Elmore, A. E. Wheeler, Standard enthalpy of formation of buckminsterfullerene. J. Phys. Chem. 199296, 4731.

82. W. E. Billups, R. E. Bachman, The thermal rearrangements of halocyclopropenes. Tetrahedron Lett. 199233, 1825.

83. W. E. Billups, S. C. Chang, R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave, Synthesis and structure of the unligated carbene of chromium. Inorg. Chem. 199332, 1529.

84. W. E. Billups, S. C. Chang, R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave, Detection of a.sigma.-complex in the reaction of cobalt atoms with methane. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993115, 2039.

85. R. Boese, D. Blaeser, R. Gleiter, K. H. Pfeifer, W. E. Billups, M. M. Haley, Structure and photoelectron spectrum of 3,3′-bicyclopropenyl. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993115, 743.

86. W. E. Billups, D. J. McCord, Gas-Phase Synthesis of Reactive Molecules Using Adsorbed Reagents. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 199433, 1332.

87. R. Boese, D. Bläser, W. E. Billups, M. M. Haley, A. H. Maulitz, D. L. Mohler, K. P. C. Vollhardt, The Effect of Fusion of Angular Strained Rings on Benzene: Crystal Structures of 1,2-Dihydrocyclobuta[a]cyclopropa[c]-, 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydrodicyclobuta [a,c]-, 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydrodicyclobuta[a,c]cyclopropa[e]-, and 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexahydrotricyclobuta[a,c,e]benzene. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 199433, 313.

88. R. Boese, D. Blaeser, W. E. Billups, M. M. Haley, W. Luo, B. E. Arney, X-ray Crystal Structure of 3-Vinylcyclopropene. Gas Phase Synthesis of Simple Cyclopropenes. J. Org. Chem. 199459, 8125.

89. W. E. Billups, W. Luo, M. Gutierrez, Spiro[2.4]hepta-1,4,6-triene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994116, 6463.

90. W. E. Billups, D. J. McCord, B. R. Maughon, Triscycloproparenes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994116, 8831.

91. W. E. Billups, M. M. Haley, R. Boese, D. Blaeser, Synthesis of the bicyclopropenyls. Tetrahedron 199450, 10693.

92. W. E. Billups, D. J. McCord, B. R. Maughon, Dimerization of cycloproparenes by silver ion. Tetrahedron Lett. 199435, 4493.

93. M. Saunders, H. A. JimÈnez-V·zquez, R. J. Cross, E. Billups, C. Gesenberg, D. J. McCord, Reaction of cyclopropa[b]naphthalene with 3He@C60. Tetrahedron Lett. 199435, 3869.

94. R. E. Bachman, B. R. Maughon, D. J. McCord, K. H. Whitmire, W. E. Billups, (Bromodichloromethyl)phenylmercury. Acta Crystallographica Section C. 199551, 2033.

95. W. E. Billups, S.-C. Chang, R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave, Low-Temperature Reactions of Atomic Cobalt with CH2N2, CH4, CH3D, CH2D2, CHD3, CD4, H2, D2, and HD. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995117, 1387.

96. M. Saunders, H. A. Jimenez-Vazquez, R. J. Cross, W. E. Billups, C. Gesenberg, A. Gonzalez, W. Luo, R. C. Haddon, F. Diederich, A. Herrmann, Analysis of Isomers of the Higher Fullerenes by 3He NMR Spectroscopy. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995117, 9305.

97. W. E. Billups, W. Luo, G.-A. Lee, J. Chee, B. E. Arney, K. B. Wiberg, D. R. Artis, Synthesis and Chemistry of Bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-1,6-ene‚. J. Org. Chem. 199661, 764.

98. W. E. Billups, W. Luo, D. McCord, R. Wagner, Synthesis of new molecular systems. Pure Appl. Chem. 199668, 275.

99. L. B. Alemany, A. Gonzalez, W. E. Billups, M. R. Willcott, E. Ezell, E. Gozansky, Alignment Effects in High Field Proton NMR Spectra of the Hydrogenated Fullerenes C60H2 and C60H4: Evidence for Residual Anisotropic Dipole‚ Dipole Couplings. J. Org. Chem. 199762, 5771.

100. L. B. Alemany, A. Gonzalez, W. Luo, W. E. Billups, M. R. Willcott, E. Ezell, E. Gozansky, Observation of Alignment Effects in High-Field Proton NMR Spectra of Hydrogenated Fullerenes: Evidence for Residual Anisotropic Dipole-Dipole Couplings. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997119, 5047.

101. W. E. Billups, W. Luo, D. McCord, R. Wagner, Synthesis of new molecular systems. NATO ASI Series 1997499, 461.

102. W. E. Billups, C. Gesenberg, R. Cole, A new methylenecyclopropene synthesis and the isolation of a novel methylenecyclopropene dimer. Tetrahedron Lett. 199738, 1115.

103. W. E. Billups, A. Gonzalez, C. Gesenberg, W. Luo, T. Marriott, L. B. Alemany, M. Saunders, H. A. JimÈnez-V·zquez, A. Khong, 3He NMR spectra of highly reduced C60. Tetrahedron Lett. 199738, 175.

104. W. E. Billups, W. Luo, A. Gonzalez, D. Arguello, L. B. Alemany, T. Marriott, M. Saunders, H. A. JimÈnez-V·zquez, A. Khong, Reduction of C60 using anhydrous hydrazine. Tetrahedron Lett. 199738, 171.

105. W. E. Billups, W. Luo, B. Harmon, D. McCord, R. Wagner, Synthesis of a novel dicycloproparene. Tetrahedron Lett. 199738, 4533.

106. A. F. Benedetto, S. M. Bachilo, R. B. Weisman, J. R. Nossal, W. E. Billups, Photophysical Studies of 1,2-C70H2. J. Phys. Chem. A 1999103, 10842.

107. W. E. Billups, V. A. Litosh, R. K. Saini, A. D. Daniels, Synthesis of Oxaspiropentene. Org. Lett. 19991, 115.

108. W. E. Billups, S.-C. Chang, J. L. Margrave, R. H. Hauge, Reactions of Atomic Manganese with CH2N2 in Solid Argon at 12 K. Organometallics 199918, 3551.

109. W. E. Billups, W. Luo, R. Wagner, H. Hopf, B. Kˆnig, M. Psiorz, Synthesis of [2.2]paracyclophane annelated cycloproparenes. Tetrahedron 199955, 10893.

110. V. A. Litosh, R. K. Saini, A. D. Daniels, W. E. Billups, Synthesis and characterization of 1-chloro- 3-methylenecyclopropene. Tetrahedron Lett. 1999,40, 1261.

111. R. K. Saini, V. A. Litosh, A. D. Daniels, W. E. Billups, Synthesis and characterization of 1,4-dichlorospiropentadiene. Tetrahedron Lett. 199940, 6157.

112. S. M. Bachilo, A. F. Benedetto, R. B. Weisman, J. R. Nossal, W. E. Billups, Time-Resolved Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in C70 and 1,2-C70H2. J. Phys. Chem. A 2000104, 11265.

113. W. E. Billups, Separation of Fullerenes by Liquid Chromatography. edited by Kiyokatsu Jinno (Toyohashi University of Technology). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000122, 3984.

114. C. J. Chu, Z. H. Kafafi, J. L. Margrave, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, Matrix-Isolation Studies of the Reactions of Ground- and Excited-State Atomic Iron with Cyclopropane. Organometallics 200019, 39.

115. J. Nossal, R. K. Saini, L. B. Alemany, M. Meier, W. E. Billups, The Synthesis and Characterization of Fullerene Hydrides. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2001, 4167.

116. S. Pekker, J. P. Salvetat, E. Jakab, J. M. Bonard, L. Forro, Hydrogenation of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphite in Liquid Ammonia. J. Phys. Chem. B2001105, 7938.

117. J. Nossal, R. K. Saini, A. K. Sadana, H. F. Bettinger, L. B. Alemany, G. E. Scuseria, W. E. Billups, M. Saunders, A. Khong, R. Weisemann, Formation, isolation, spectroscopic properties, and calculated properties of some isomers of C60H36. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001123, 8482.

118. V. A. Litosh, R. K. Saini, I. Y. Guzman-Jimenez, K. H. Whitmire, W. E. Billups, Reactions of cycloproparenes with metal carbenes. Org. Lett. 2001, 3, 65.

119. V. N. Khabashesku, W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave, Fluorination of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes and Subsequent Derivatization Reactions. Acc. Chem. Res. 200235, 1087.

120. H. F. Bettinger, A. D. Rabuck, G. E. Scuseria, N.-X. Wang, V. A. Litosh, R. K. Saini, W. E. Billups, Pathways for the thermally induced dehydrogenation of C60H2. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2002360, 509.

121. W. E. Billups, R. K. Saini, V. A. Litosh, L. B. Alemany, W. K. Wilson, K. B. Wiberg, Thermal rearrangements of spiro[2.4]hepta-1,4,6-trienes. J. Org. Chem. 200267, 4436.

122. R. Boese, M. T. Kirchner, W. E. Billups, L. R. Norman, Cocrystallization with acetylene: molecular complexes with acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 200342, 1961.

123. R. Boese, M. T. Kirchner, W. E. Billups, L. R. Norman, Cover Picture: Cocrystallization with acetylene: Molecular complexes with acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 17/2003). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 200342, 1877.

124. A. K. Sadana, R. K. Saini, W. E. Billups, Cyclobutarenes and related compounds. Chem. Rev. 2003103, 1539.

125. A. Peera, R. K. Saini, L. B. Alemany, W. E. Billups, M. Saunders, A. Khong, M. S. Syamala, R. J. Cross, Formation, Isolation, and Spectroscopic Properties of Some Isomers of C60H38, C60H40, C60H42, and C60H44 − Analysis of the Effect of the Different Shapes of Various Helium-Containing Hydrogenated Fullerenes on Their 3He Chemical Shifts. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 20032003, 4140.

126. Y. Vega-Cantú, R. Hauge, L. Norman, W. E. Billups, Enhancement of the chemical resistance of nitrile rubber by direct fluorination. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 200389, 971.

127. Y. Vega-Cantú, R. Hauge, L. Norman, W. E. Billups, ZnBr2-catalyzed chemical effects in poly(acrylonitrile- co-butadiene). J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2003,89, 1250.

128. S. Ramesh, B. Brinson, M. P. Johnson, Z. Gu, R. K. Saini, P. Willis, T. Marriott, W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, Identification of Large Fullerenes Formed during the Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the HiPco Process. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 1360.

129. R. K. Saini, I. W. Chiang, H. Peng, R. E. Smalley, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave, Covalent Sidewall Functionalization of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003125, 3617.

130. Y. Ying, R. K. Saini, F. Liang, A. K. Sadana, W. E. Billups, Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes by Free Radicals. Org. Lett. 20035, 1471.

131. A. A. Peera, L. B. Alemany, W. E. Billups, Hydrogen storage in hydrofullerides. Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 200478, 995.

132. A. V. Talyzin, B. Sundqvist, Y. M. Shulga, A. A. Peera, P. Imus, W. E. Billups, Gentle fragmentation of C60 by strong hydrogenation: a route to synthesizing new materials. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2004400, 112.

133. S. Ramesh, L. M. Ericson, V. A. Davis, R. K. Saini, C. Kittrell, M. Pasquali, W. E. Billups, W. W. Adams, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, Dissolution of Pristine Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Superacids by Direct Protonation. J. Phys. Chem. B 2004108, 8794.

134. M. T. Kirchner, R. Boese, W. E. Billups, L. R. Norman, Gas Hydrate Single-Crystal Structure Analyses. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004126, 9407.

135. V. A. Davis, L. M. Ericson, A. N. G. Parra-Vasquez, H. Fan, Y. Wang, V. Prieto, J. A. Longoria, S. Ramesh, R. K. Saini, C. Kittrell, W. E. Billups, W. W. Adams, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, M. Pasquali, Phase Behavior and Rheology of SWNTs in Superacids. Macromolecules 200437, 154.

136. F. Liang, A. K. Sadana, A. Peera, J. Chattopadhyay, Z. Gu, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, A convenient route to functionalized carbon nanotubes. Nano Lett. 20044, 1257.

137. L. M. Ericson, H. Fan, H. Peng, V. A. Davis, W. Zhou, J. Sulpizio, Y. Wang, R. Booker, J. Vavro, C. Guthy, A. N. G. Parra-Vasquez, M. J. Kim, S. Ramesh, R. K. Saini, C. Kittrell, G. Lavin, H. Schmidt, W. W. Adams, W. E. Billups, M. Pasquali, W.-F. Hwang, R. H. Hauge, J. E. Fischer, R. E. Smalley, Macroscopic, Neat, Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Fibers. Science 2004305, 1447.

138. Z. Gu, F. Liang, Z. Chen, A. Sadana, C. Kittrell, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, In situ Raman studies on lithiated single-wall carbon nanotubes in liquid ammonia. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2005410, 467.

139. R. L. Carver, H. Peng, A. K. Sadana, P. Nikolaev, S. Arepalli, C. D. Scott, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, A model for nucleation and growth of single wall carbon nanotubes via the HiPco process: A catalyst concentration study. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 20055, 1035.

140. A. K. Sadana, F. Liang, B. Brinson, S. Arepalli, S. Farhat, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, W. E. Billups, Functionalization and Extraction of Large Fullerenes and Carbon-Coated Metal Formed during the Synthesis of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Laser Oven, Direct Current Arc, and High-Pressure Carbon Monoxide Production Methods. J. Phys. Chem. B 2005109, 4416.

141. A. V. Talyzin, Y. O. Tsybin, A. A. Peera, T. M. Schaub, A. G. Marshall, B. Sundqvist, P. Mauron, A. Z√ºttel, W. E. Billups, Synthesis of C59Hx and C58Hx Fullerenes Stabilized by Hydrogen. J. Phys. Chem. B 2005109, 5403.

142. W. E. Billups, Fullerenes: Chemistry and ReactionsJ. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005127, 11876.

143. W. E. Billups, Fullerenes: Chemistry and Reactions, by Andreas Hirsch and Michael Brettreich. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005127, 11876.

144. F. Liang, L. B. Alemany, J. M. Beach, W. E. Billups, Structure Analyses of Dodecylated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 13941.

145. J. Chattopadhyay, A. K. Sadana, F. Liang, J. M. Beach, Y. Xiao, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, Carbon nanotube salts. Arylation of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Org. Lett. 20057, 4067.

146. V. A. Davis, L. M. Ericson, A. N. G. Parra-Vasquez, H. Fan, Y. Wang, V. Prieto, J. A. Longoria, S. Ramesh, R. K. Saini, C. Kittrell, W. E. Billups, W. W. Adams, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, M. Pasquali, SWNTs in superacids. Polym. Prepr. – Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem. 200546, 233.

147. Y. I. Vega-Cantu, R. H. Hauge, L. R. Norman, R. J. Powell, W. E. Billups, Effect of magnesium and iron on the hydration and hydrolysis of guar gum. Biomacromolecules 20067, 441.

148. J. Chattopadhyay, F. de Jesus Cortez, S. Chakraborty, N. K. H. Slater, W. E. Billups, Synthesis of water-soluble PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes. Chem. Mater. 200618, 5864.

149. F. Liang, J. M. Beach, K. Kobashi, A. K. Sadana, Y. I. Vega-Cantu, J. M. Tour, W. E. Billups, In situ Polymerization Initiated by Single-walled carbon nanotube salts. Chem. Mater. 200618, 4764.

150. F. Liang, J. M. Beach, P. K. Rai, W. Guo, R. H. Hauge, M. Pasquali, R. E. Smalley, W. E. Billups, Highly exfoliated water-soluble single-walled carbon nanotubes. Chem. Mater. 200618, 1520.

151. S. Chakraborty, J. Chattopadhyay, H. Peng, Z. Chen, A. Mukherjee, R. S. Arvidson, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, Surface Area Measurement of Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. J. Phys. Chem. B 2006110, 24812.

152. W. E. Billups, Carbon-Rich Compounds: From Molecules to Materials. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006128, 14207.

153. D. Ogrin, J. Chattopadhyay, A. K. Sadana, W. E. Billups, A. R. Barron, Epoxidation and Deoxygenation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Quantification of Epoxide Defects. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006128, 11322.

154. C. M. Sayes, F. Liang, J. L. Hudson, J. Mendez, W. Guo, J. M. Beach, V. C. Moore, C. D. Doyle, J. L. West, W. E. Billups, K. D. Ausman, V. L. Colvin, Functionalization density dependence of single-walled carbon nanotubes cytotoxicity in vitro. Toxicol. Lett. 2006161, 135.

155. S. Chakraborty, J. Chattopadhyay, W. Guo, W. E. Billups, Functionalization of potassium graphite. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 200746, 4486.

156. X. Shi, B. Sitharaman, Q. P. Pham, F. Liang, K. Wu, W. Edward Billups, L. J. Wilson, A. G. Mikos, Fabrication of porous ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 200728, 4078.

157. W. E. Billups, F. Liang, J. Chattopadhyay, J. M. Beach, Uses of single wall carbon nanotube salts in organic syntheses. ECS Transactions 2 20072, 65.

158. P. K. Rai, A. N. G. Parra-Vasquez, J. Chattopadhyay, R. A. Pinnick, F. Liang, A. K. Sadana, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, M. Pasquali, Dispersions of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes in strong acids: solubility and rheology. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 20077, 3378.

159. K. J. Ziegler, U. Rauwald, Z. Gu, L. Feng, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, Statistically accurate length measurements of single-walled carbon nanotubes. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 20077, 2917.

160. J. Chattopadhyay, S. Chakraborty, A. Mukherjee, R. Wang, P. S. Engel, W. E. Billups, SET mechanism in the functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes. J. Phys. Chem. C 2007111, 17928.

161. D. Ogrin, R. E. Anderson, R. Colorado, B. Maruyama, M. J. Pender, V. C. Moore, S. T. Pheasant, L. McJilton, H. K. Schmidt, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, J. M. Tour, R. E. Smalley, A. R. Barron, Amplification of single-walled carbon nanotubes from designed seeds: separation of nucleation and growth. J. Phys. Chem. C 2007111, 17804.

162. S. Ramesh, H. Shan, E. Haroz, W. E. Billups, R. Hauge, W. W. Adams, R. E. Smalley, Diameter selection of single-walled carbon nanotubes through programmable solvation in binary sulfonic acid mixtures. J. Phys. Chem. C 2007111, 17827.

163. S. Ramesh, H. Shan, E. Haroz, W. E. Billups, R. Hauge, W. W. Adams, R. E. Smalley, Diameter Selection of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes through Programmable Solvation in Binary Sulfonic Acid Mixtures. J. Phys. Chem. C 2007111, 17827.

164. W. E. Billups, Fullerenes: A Principles and Applications Edited by Fernando Langa (University of Castilla La Mancha, Toledo, Spain) and Jean-Franois Nierengarten (CNRS, Toulouse, France). Royal Society of Chemistry:‚Cambridge. 2007. xii + 398 pp. $169. ISBN 978-0-85404-551-8. J.Am. Chem. Soc. 2007130, 383.

165. H. Hong, J. Wensel, F. Liang, W. E. Billups, W. Roy, Heat transfer nanofluids based on carbon nanotubes. J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 200721, 234.

166. M. Moniruzzaman, J. Chattopadhay, W. E. Billups, K. I. Winey, Tuning the mechanical properties of SWNT/nylon 6,10 composites with flexible spacers at the interface. Nano Lett. 20077, 1178.

167. J. Chattopadhyay, J. C. F. de, S. Chakraborty, N. K. H. Slater, W. E. Billups, Application of lithium nanotube salts in organic syntheses: water-soluble pegylated single walled carbon nanotubes. Prepr. Symp. – Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem. 200752, 124.

168. C. Ni, J. Chattopadhyay, W. E. Billups, P. R. Bandaru, Modification of the electrical characteristics of single wall carbon nanotubes through selective functionalization. Appl. Phys. Lett. 200893, 243113/243111.

169. S. Chakraborty, W. Guo, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, Reductive Alkylation of Fluorinated Graphite. Chem. Mater. 200820, 3134.

170. A. Mukherjee, L. B. Alemany, J. Chattopadhyay, S. Chakraborty, W. Guo, S. M. Yates, W. E. Billups, Dodecylated large fullerenes: An unusual class of solids. Chem. Mater. 200820, 5513.

171. A. Mukherjee, R. Combs, J. Chattopadhyay, D. W. Abmayr, P. S. Engel, W. E. Billups, Attachment of nitrogen and oxygen centered radicals to single-walled carbon nanotube salts. Chem. Mater. 200820, 7339.

172. P. S. Engel, W. E. Billups, D. W. Abmayr, K. Tsvaygboym, R. Wang, Reaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes with organic peroxides. J. Phys. Chem. C 2008112, 695.

173. W. E. Billups, Fullerenes: principles and applications edited by Fernando Langa and Jean-Francois Nierengarten. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008130, 383.

174. J. Chattopadhyay, A. Mukherjee, C. E. Hamilton, J. Kang, S. Chakraborty, W. Guo, K. F. Kelly, A. R. Barron, W. E. Billups, Graphite epoxide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008130, 5414.

175. B. Glover, K. W. Whites, H. Hong, A. Mukherjee, W. E. Billups, Effective electrical conductivity of functional single-wall carbon nanotubes in aqueous fluids. Synth. Met. 2008158, 506.

176. J. Chattopadhyay, A. Mukherjee, S. Chakraborty, J. H. Kang, P. J. Loos, K. F. Kelly, H. K. Schmidt, W. E. Billups, Exfoliated soluble graphite.Carbon 200947, 2945.

177. L. McJilton, C. Horton, C. Kittrell, D. Ogrin, H. Peng, F. Liang, W. E. Billups, H. K. Schmidt, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, A. R. Barron, Nebulization of single-walled carbon nanotubes for respiratory toxicity studies. Carbon 200947, 2528.

178. V. C. Moore, L. A. McJilton, S. T. Pheasant, C. Kittrell, R. E. Anderson, D. Ogrin, F. Liang, R. H. Hauge, H. K. Schmidt, J. M. Tour, W. E. Billups, A. R. Barron, R. E. Smalley, Controlled attachment of metal nanoparticles to single walled carbon nanotubes as a key step in their seeded growth and lengthening. Carbon 200948, 561.

179. A. Mukherjee, L. B. Alemany, R. Thaner, W. H. Guo, W. E. Billups, Soluble activated charcoal. Carbon 200947, 3145.

180. O. V. Ogloblya, Y. M. Strzhemechny, G. M. Kuznetsova, Y. I. Prylutskyy, W. E. Billups, Linear polarizability of carbon nanotubes bonded to maleimide derivative and fluorescent probe Nile red. Computational Materials Science 200946, 112.

181. Y. J. Zhang, Y. X. Wang, W. E. Billups, H. B. Liu, J. H. Yang, Ordered magnetic multilayer nanobowl array by nanosphere template method. Solid State Commun. 2010150, 2357.

182. A. Kumar, A. L. M. Reddy, A. Mukherjee, M. Dubey, X. Zhan, N. Singh, L. Ci, W. E. Billups, J. Nagurny, G. Mital, P. M. Ajayan, Direct synthesis of lithium-intercalated graphene for electrochemical energy storage application. ACS Nano 20115, 4345.

183. A. Mukherjee, J. Kang, O. Kuznetsov, Y. Sun, R. Thaner, A. S. Bratt, J. R. Lomeda, K. F. Kelly, W. E. Billups, Water-soluble graphite nanoplatelets formed by oleum exfoliation of graphite. Chem. Mater. 201123, 9.

184. Y. Sun, O. Kuznetsov, L. B. Alemany, W. E. Billups, Reductive alkylation of anthracite: edge functionalization. Energy Fuels 2011, 3997.

185. Y. Sun, A. Mukherjee, O. Kuznetsov, R. Thaner, L. B. Alemany, W. E. Billups, Functionalization by reductive alkylation and mapping of a subbituminous coal by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Energy Fuels 201125, 1571.

186. Y. Sun, L. B. Alemany, W. E. Billups, J. Lu, B. I. Yakobson, Structural dislocations in anthracite. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2011, 2521.

187. O. Kuznetsov, R. Thaner, Y. Sun, A. Bratt, M. S. Wong, J. Jones, W. E. Billups, Water soluble nanodiamond. Langmuir 2012, 28, 5243.

188. Z. Yang, Y. Sun, L. B. Alemany, T. N. Narayanan, W. E. Billups, Birch reduction of graphite. Edge and Interior functionalization by hydrogen.  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 18689.

189. K, F. Kelly, W. E. Billups, Syntheis of water soluble graphite and graphene. Accounts of Chemical Research2013, 46, 4.

190. A. C. Ford, M. C. Shaughnessy-Culver, B. M. Wong, O. V. Kuznetsov, A. Kane, K. L. Krafcik, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, F. Léonard, Physical Removal of Metallic Carbon Nanotubes from Nanotube Network Devices Using a Thermal and Fluidic Process. Nanotechnology 2013, 24, 105202.

191. S. J. Corr, M. Raoof, B. T. Cisneros, O. Kuznetsov, K. Massey, W. D. Kaluarachchi1, M. A. Cheney, W. E. Billups, L. J. Wilson, S. A. Curley,  Cytotoxicity and variant cellular internalization behaviour of water-soluble sulphonated nano-graphene sheets in liver cancer cells. Nanoscale Research Letters  2013, 8, 208.

192. S. Acharya, J. Alvarado, D. Banerjee, W. E. Billups, G. Chen, B. A. Cola, W. Cross, E. Duke, S. Graham, Jr., H. He, H. Hong, S. Jin, S. Karna, C. Li, C. H. Li, J. Li, G. P. Peterson, J. A. Puszynski, J. Routbort, J. Shan, D. Shin, A. Smirnova, P. Smith, X. Wang, A. Waynick, R. White, X. Yan, and W. Yu, Report on Carbon and Nano Material Workshop: Challenges and Opportunities.  Nanoscale Microscale Thermophys. Eng. 2013 17, 10-24.

Patents:

1. A. N. Kurtz, W. E. Billups, M. L. Farmer 1,3-Diaminoalkanes. US3487111A, 1969.

2. V. N. Khabashesku, H. Peng, J. L. Margrave, M. L. Margrave, W. E. Billups, Y. Ying Method for functionalizing carbon nanotubes utilizing peroxides. US20040223900A1, 2004.

3. W. E. Billups, A. K. Sadana, F. Liang, R. H. Hauge Reductive functionalization of carbon nanotubes. WO2005090233A2, 2005.

4. R. E. Smalley, R. H. Hauge, A. R. Barron, J. M. Tour, H. K. Schmidt, W. E. Billups, C. A. Dyke, V. C. Moore, E. Whitsitt, R. A. Anderson, R. Colorado, Jr., M. Stewart, D. C. Ogrin Amplification of carbon nanotubes via seeded-growth methods. WO2005085132A2, 2005.

5. W. E. Billups, A. Sadana, J. Chattopadhyay Two-step method of functionalizing carbon allotropes and PEGylated carbon allotropes made by such methods. WO2007051071A2, 2007.

6. F. Liang, W. E. Billups Water-soluble single-wall carbon nanotubes as a platform technology for biomedical applications. US20070110658A1, 2007.

7. H. K. Schmidt, W. E. Billups, J. Chattopadhyay Functionalized graphene materials, method of production, and use in polymer composites. WO2008097343A2, 2008.

Book and Book Sections:

194. W. E. Billups, Buckminsterfullerenes. VCH: NY, 1993.

195. R. V. Stevens, W. E. Billups, B. Jacobson, Stereochemistry and reaction mechanism. In Techniques of Physical Organic Chemistry, the 3rd edittion ed.; Lewis, E. S., Ed. John Wiley and Sons: New York, N.Y., 1974; Vol. 6.

196. W. E. Billups, A. J. Blakeney, W. Y. Chow, Benzocyclopropene. In Org. Synth., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: 1976; Vol. 55, p No pp. given.

197. J. Margrave, L., H. Hauge R, K. Ismail Z, L. Fredin, E. Billups W, Synthetic Inorganic Chemistry in Low Temperature Matrices. In InorganicChemistry: Toward the 21st Century, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY: 1983; Vol. 211, p 329-331.

198. W. E. Billups, K. N. Houk, R. V. Stevens, Stereochemistry and reaction mechanism. In Tech. Chem. (N. Y.), 1986; Vol. 6, p 663.

199. W. E. Billups, K. N. Houk, R. V. Stevens, Stereochemistry and Reaction Mechanism. In Techniques of Physical Organic Chemistry, 4th Ed., Pt. 1 ed.; Bernasconi, C. F., Ed. John Wiley and Sons: New York, N.Y., 1986; Vol. 7, p 663-746.

200. W. E. Billups, A. W. Moorehead, The Chemistry of the Cyclopropenyl Group. In The Chemistry of Functional Groups, Patai, S.,Rappoport, Z., Eds. John Wiley and Sons: New York, N.Y., 1987; Vol. Part 2, p 1533-1574.

201. W. E. Billups, A. J. Blakeney, W. Y. Chow, Benzocyclopropene (Bicyclo[4.1.0]hepta-1,3,5-triene). In Organic Synthesis, Noland, W. E., Ed. John Wiley & Sons: New York, N.Y., 1988; Vol. VI, p 87.

202. W. E. Billups, Reactions of strained carbon-carbon bonds with metal atoms. In NATO ASI Series, Meijere, A. d.,Blechert, S., Eds. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, 1989; Vol. 273, p 451.

203. W. E. Billups, M. M. Haley, G.-A. Lee, Synthesis of Cyclopropenes. In NATO ASI Series, Meijere, A. d.,Blechert, S., Eds. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, 1989; p 483.

204. W. E. Billups, R. E. Bachman, Alkyl Complexes by Direct Hydrocarbon Activation. In Inorganic Reactions and Methods, Hagen, A. P., Ed. VCH: 1991; Vol. 12a, p 2-7.

205. W. E. Billups, Excited States of Atoms and Bare Ions. In Encylopedia of Inorganic Chemistry, Wiley: 1994; Vol. 1.

206. W. E. Billups, B. E. Arney, Jr., Uses of the vacuum gas-solid reaction procedure in synthesis. In Advances in Strain in Organic Chemistry 6, Michl, J., Ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, 1997; Vol. 6, p 35-65.

207. W. E. Billups, J. B. E. Arney, Discussion of the Palacin and Seddon Lectures. In NATO ASI Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, 1997; Vol. 499, p 163.

208. W. E. Billups, W. Luo, D. McCord, R. Wagner, Synthesis of New Molecular Systems. In NATO ASI Series, Michl, J., Ed. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, 1997; Vol. 499, p 461.

209. R. K. Saini, W. E. Billups, β-Silyl Alkyl Halides. In Houben-Weyl Methods of Molecular Transformations, Science of Synthesis, Fleming, I., Ed. Georg Thieme Verlag: Stuttgart, 2001; Vol. 4, p 773.

210. W. E. Billups, R. K. Saini, Product subclass 36: ß-silyl alkyl halides. In Science of Synthesis, Georg Thieme Verlag: 2002; Vol. 4, p 773.

211. W. E. Billups, A. J. Blakeney, W. Y. Chow, Benzocyclopropene. In Org. Synth., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: 2003.

212. W. E. Billups, “Fullerenes”. In Chemistry: Foundations and Applications, Lagowski, J. J., Ed. Macmillan: New York., 2004; Vol. 2, p 128-130.

213. L. Becker, R. J. Poreda, J. A. Nuth, F. T. Ferguson, F. Liang, W. E. Billups, Fullerenes in meteorites and the nature of planetary atmospheres. InNatural Fullerenes and Related Structures of Elemental Carbon, Reitmeijer, F., J. M., Ed. Springer: Dordrecht, 2006; Vol., p 276.

214. L. Becker, R. J. Poreda, J. A. Nuth, F. T. Ferguson, F. Liang, W. E. Billups, Future procedures for isolation of higher fullerenes in natural and synthetic soot. In Natural Fullerenes and Related Structures of Elemental Carbon, Reitmeijer, F., J. M., Ed. Springer: Dordrecht, 2006; Vol. 6, p 279.

Conferences and Report

215. K. H. Leavell, W. E. Billups, E. E. Lewis In Abst. IUPAC Congr. 23rd, 1971; pp Pap. No. 108.

216. J. W. Kauffman, M. M. Konarski, W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave In New Reactions of Astrochemical Interest, DARPA Materials Research Council Summer Conference, 1981; pp 242-249.

217. J. L. Margrave, R. H. Hauge, Z. K. Ismail, L. Fredin, W. E. Billups In Synthetic Inorganic Chemistry in Low Temperature Matrices, ACS Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry: Toward the 21st Century, 1982; pp 329.

218. J. L. Margrave, R. H. Hauge, Z. K. Ismail, L. Fredin, W. E. Billups In Synthetic inorganic chemistry in low-temperature matrixes, ACS Symp. Ser., 1983; pp 329.

219. W. E. Billups, J. L. Margrave, Z. H. Kafafi, R. H. Hauge In Activation of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes by Photoexcited Metal Atoms and Clusters, Fourth International Symposium on Homogeneous Catalysis, Leningrad, Russia, 1984; pp 961-964.

220. V. A. Litosh, R. K. Saini, A. D. Daniels, W. E. Billups In Synthesis of strained ring compounds, 217th ACS National Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 1999; American Chemical Society: pp ORGN-357.

221. K. D. Ausman, M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, M. J. Casavant, D. A. Walters, C. Huffman, R. K. Saini, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, W. E. Billups, R. E. Smalley In Roping and Wrapping Carbon Nanotubes, Proceedings of XVth International Winterschool on Electronic Properties of Novel Materials Euroconference, Kirchberg, Tirol, Austria, 2000.

222. I. W. Chiang, R. K. Saini, E. T. Mickelson, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave In Covalent Sidewall Functionalization of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes, National Academy of Sciences Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia, Washington, DC, 2001.

223. I. W. Chiang, R. K. Saini, E. T. Mickelson, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, J. L. Margrave In Covalent sidewall functionalization of single wall carbon nanotubes, Proceedings of the Sixth Applied Diamond Conference/Second Frontier Carbon Technology Joint Conference, 2001, 2001; National Aeronautics and Space Administration: pp 687.

224. R. E. Smalley, K. D. Ausman, R. K. Saini, I. W. Chiang, C. Huffman, M. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, R. H. Hauge, W. E. Billups, D. Colbert, K. Smith In Roping and Wrapping Carbon Nanotubes, 221st ACS National Meeting, San Diego, CA, United States, 2001; American Chemical Society: pp INOR-333.

225. A. K. Sadana, L. Feng, B. Brinson, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, W. E. Billups In Functionlization and extraction of large fullerenes and metal-encapsulated carbon formed during the synthesis of carbon nanotubes by laser oven, DC arc and HiPco SWNT production methods, 227th ACS National Meeting, Anaheim, CA, United States, 2004; American Chemical Society: pp IEC-187.

226. F. Liang, A. K. Sadana, Z. Gu, A. Peera, J. Chattopadhyay, C. Kittrell, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, W. E. Billups In A Convenient Route to Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes, 60th Southwest Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Fort Worth, TX, United States, 2004; American Chemical Society: pp SEPT04-195.

227. A. N. G. Parra-Vasquez, V. A. Davis, V. Prieto, P. Rai, A. K. Sadana, F. Liang, J. Chattopabhyay, W. E. Billups, R. H. Hauge, R. E. Smalley, M. Pasquali In Determining the distribution and average length of single-walled carbon nanotubes by viscosity measurements in dilute Brownian suspensions, 229th ACS National Meeting, San Diego, CA, United States, 2005; American Chemical Society.

228. F. Liang, L. B. Alemany, J. M. Beach, W. E. Billups In Uses of single-walled carbon nanotube salts in syntheses, 230th ACS National Meeting, Washington, DC, United States, 2005; American Chemical Society: pp ORGN-087.

229. M. Pasquali, V. A. Davis, L. Ericson, A. N. G. Parra-Vasquez, H. Fan, Y. Wang, V. Prieto, J. A. Longoria, S. Ramesh, R. K. Saini, C. Kittrell, W. E. Billups, W. W. Adams, R. Hauge, R. E. Smalley In SWNTs in superacids, 229th ACS National Meeting, San Diego, CA, United States, 2005; American Chemical Society: pp POLY-061.

230. W. E. Billups In Uses of single walled carbon nanotube salts in syntheses, ECS Transactions, Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Carbon Nanostructures, Denver, Colorado, 2006; American Chemical Society: pp issue no. 6.

231. M. Moniruzzaman, K. I. Winey, J. Chattopadhyay, W. E. Billups In Covalent integration of functionalized single wall nanotubes into nylon 6,10 via interfacial in situ polycondensation, 232nd ACS National Meeting, an Francisco, CA, 2006: pp PRES-037.

232. R. Allada, J. Chattopadhyay, P. Moloney, K. Shah, T. Filburn, M. Anderson, F. Smith, W. E. Billups, S. Arepalli, L. Yowell In Nanoscale Materials for Human Spaceflight Applications: Regenerable Carbon Dioxide Removal Using Single-wall Carbon Nanotubes, Proceedings of 36th International Conference on Environmental Systems, Norfolk, VA, USA, 2006.

233. K. D. Ausman, M. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, M. J. Casavant, D. A. Walters, C. Huffman, R. K. Saini, Y. X. Wang, E. Haroz, W. E. Billups, R. E. Smalley In Roping and Wrapping Carbon Nanotubes; AIP Conference Proceedings; Electronic Properties of Molecular Nanostructures, 2011; p 226.

234. R. E. Smalley, J. L. Margrave, R. H. Hauge, L. J. Wilson, W. E. Billups, C. H. Aro, A.-A. Order No Studies of C60, C70 and other fullerenes: synthesis, derivatization, electrochemistry, lubricant properties and new composite materials; Army Foreign Sci. Technol. Cent.: 1995; p 37 .